Comprehensive History and Culture of Andhra Pradesh, Volume V- Late Medieval Andhra Pradesh AD 1324–1724

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Late Medieval Andhra Pradesh cover

Edited by R. Soma Reddy

June 2014

9.5 x 6.25 inches
xxiv+764 pages
ISBN: 978-93-82381-38-9
Rs 1500

The present volume on Late Medieval Andhra Pradesh covers the period AD 1324 to AD 1724, which witnessedthe rise of large regional state powers such as the Vijayanagara kingdom, the Bahmanis, Gajapatis, Musunuris, Recherlas, Reddis and Later Gangas. The political formations of the period were military-centred as witnessed by the well-organized nayamkara system, which revolved around the creation of nayamkaras or military chiefs,and was the mainstay of the Vijayanagara rulers.

There was large-scale expansion of agriculture with the introduction of new crops like tobacco, tomato, potato and chillies, and phenomenal growth of trade in commodities like cotton and indigo. The trading and artisanal communities were organized in powerful guilds.

The constant flux of peoples of different languages, faiths, cultural modes and professions led to a liberal spirit of tolerance. Telugu literature flourished, and new genres were introduced in which outstandingworks were created. A significant feature of the times was the evolution of a composite Dakhni (Deccani)culture. Rulers, Hindu and Muslim alike, patronized religious institutions but did not allow religion to interfere in matters relating to administration. Sri Vaishnavism, which won royal support during the reign of Saluva Narasimha, was established in the royal house and court during Krishnadeva Raya’s rule. Numerous royal grants were given to Vaishnava temples and mathas. During Aravidu rule, the Tirumala temple occupied a premier position. Ahobalam was another centre in western Andhra that wielded great influence. The patronage of ruling chiefs of Shudra varna to Sri Vaishnava acharyas and temples fundamentally influenced their social and ritual ranking.

The sixteenth-century temple was an organized complex of sanctuaries and mandapas. Tadipatri, Lepakshi and Ahobalam deserve mention as examples. Placing a chariot in stone in the temple complex was a contribution of the Vijayanagara period. The Aravidu period contributed the gopura as a dominant feature of the temple complex. The detached gopura of Govindarajaswami Temple, Tirupati, is a fine example. The rulers of medieval Andhra seldom violated established norms of dharma, thereby ensuring the security and stability of their kingdoms.


V. Ramakrishna (General Editor), formerly Professor of History, University of Hyderabad, and founder member, Andhra Pradesh History Congress.

R. Soma Reddy (Editor), formerly Professor of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad.

I. Lakshmi (Co-Editor), Professor of History, Osmania University, Hyderabad.

C. Somasundara Rao, formerly Professor, Department of History and Archaeology, Andhra University,

B. Rajendra Prasad (late), formerly Professor, Department of Ancient Indian History, Culture and Archaeology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati.


Anant Raje Architect – Selected Works 1971–2009

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Edited by Amita Raje & Shubhra Raje

– Published in association with Anant Raje Foundation
September 2012

10 x 10 inches
336 pages
ISBN: 978-93-82381-02-0
Rs 3500

A few years before his death in 2009, Anant Raje had begun to assemble a draft of his works – published and unpublished. The present book is inspired by that draft, which remained unfinished. Raje’s meticulous documentation of the process of thoughts that gave direction to design and of the development of construction details, and the eventual record of the building form an elaborate archive. The collection of photographs, drawings and notes provides clues to the many fundamental problems and situations he constantly wrestled with. To monitor, sift and make a selection from such an archive is perhaps the only way of providing the first point of public contact with the very private, very varied and fulfilled life of someone who treated the profession of architecture as a personal discovery.

Anant Raje Architect: Selected Works 1971–2009 features over thirty projects that Raje had assembled into a skeletal draft – of both built and unbuilt works, and competition entries. Each project is extensively illustrated with photographs, models, drawings, sketches and reflections by the architect, many of which are previously unpublished. These have been selected and assembled from Raje’s office archives, diaries, interviews, publications and lecture transcriptions. The book includes essays by Raje on his seminal association with Louis Kahn in Philadelphia and the subsequent continuation of his work at the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad, as well as reflections on his independent practice, methods, sources and inspirations. It also contains a chronological listing of all his projects, and of his lectures and teaching assignments.

As a whole, the material in the book presents the architect both at work and in reflection of it. For the many who knew him, the book is a eulogy; for others, it is a record of a working life.

Anant Raje (1929–2009) was a well-known architect, intellectual and teacher. He graduated in 1954 from the J.J. School of Fine Arts, Mumbai. He started his architecture studio in India in 1969, upon returning from working with Louis Kahn in Philadelphia.

In describing Raje’s practice of four decades rooted in the discipline of  building, Professor Kurula Varkey, former Director, School of Architecture, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, wrote: ‘Raje’s work exhibits integrity between purpose and expression, building and landscape, part and whole, and the ultimate quality of all good architecture through time – a sense of repose. If the disciplines of the mind are the underpinnings of all his work, it is his excellent understanding of the elements of building, and the laws of construct, that give it the sense of ordered presence. Yet it is an order enriched by the patina of materials he chooses and his sensitivity of light. There is init a softness and quality of transcendence. Raje knows better than most, the essence of history and its continued presence.’ Raje’s association with the School of Architecture, CEPT University, was consistent throughout the period of his independent practice; he was Professor Emeritus, and also Director of the School in the 1980s. He also taught at the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad and at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. He was Visiting Professor at several universities in the United States, Europe and Australia, and he lectured extensively at architecture schools in India and around the world.

Raje received several professional and academic awards, including the Distinguished Professor’s Award from the Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT), Ahmedabad in 1987, the Indian Institute of Architects (IIA) Baburao Mhatre Gold Medal for Architecture in 1993, and the Master Award for Lifetime Contribution in Architecture from J.K. Industries, India in 2000.